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• FCI – Fédération Cynologique Internationale (International Canine Federation). The FCI is the governing body for most of the recognized breeding clubs and is the FCI is the largest canine organization in the world.  Although the FCI typically allows the founding organization of a breed to stipulate the breed rules (i.e. ADRK publicizes the Rottweiler Breed Guidelines), those organizations still fall under the FCI.  The FCI is then able to implement the breed regulations worldwide with all the other Kennel Clubs throughout the world.  Almost every major country in the world is a member of the FCI with the exceptions of the United States and Great Britain.  The FCI is the organization to sanction national championships and international championships. The rules and titles of the FCI are the most widely accepted in the world and most kennels and judges will attempt recognition by the FCI in order to become “official”.  (i.e. an FCI Rottweiler Judge, or a kennel with an FCI number)  

• ADRK – Allgemeiner Deutscher Rottweiler Klub. This is the official governing body for Rottweilers in Germany.  Although most countries will have their own Kennel Clubs, the ADRK is accepted worldwide as the Rottweiler breed parent organization.

• VDH – Verband fur das Deutsche Hundewesen.  This is the official body that governs all dog breeds in Germany.  So although the ADRK is the most recognized for setting breed standards and regulations for the Rottweiler, it is a division of the VDH.  You will often see “VDH Champion” on many German dogs- this means that the dog championed in Germany under the VDH.

• AKC – American Kennel Club.  The American organization responsible for setting dog registrations of every recognized breed.  The AKC will have its own events, titles etc. similar to the VDH (i.e. and “AKC Champion” dog).  The biggest problem I personally have with the AKC vs. ADRK is that the AKC simply posts the regulations and then places responsibility of adhering to breed suitability testing, health clearances relative to each particular breed, correct confirmation, etc. completely on the shoulders of the breeder.  The AKC will register almost anything and the pups produced of dogs that are no where near breed standard and/or compromised in character or health.  This is why most “AKC Registered Pure Bred” dogs do not come close to the breed standard for their breed.  Many other Organizations including ENCI (Italy), ADRK (Germany), etc. REQUIRE all health clearances, breed suitability testing and proof of correct conformation BEFORE permitting breeding or recognizing offspring.  This of course results is much stronger, mentally stable and healthier bloodlines.

• ARC – American Rottweiler Club. The division of the AKC that has special interest in Rottweilers.

• USRC – United States Rottweiler Club. An organization in the USA that attempts to emulate the ADRK and sponsors “German style” events including conformation shows and working trials.

• ARV – American Rottweiler Verein.  Similar to the USRC, they are a USA organization that attempts to emulate the ADRK and sponsors “German style” events including conformation shows and working trials.

• CKC = Continental Kennel Club.  This “kennel club” is often used to register dogs that do not qualify for AKC registration.  And with as lax as AKC requirements for registration are, the quality of dog that does not even qualify for AKC, as you can imagine is far from “top pick.”  The CONTINENTAL KENNEL CLUB should not be confused with the CANADIAN KENNEL CLUB- the original CKC.  The Canadian Kennel Club is reputable and comparable to AKC in regulations.  Be extremely leery, however, of Continental Kennel Clubs dogs and pups.  Unfortunately, the breeders who are only eligible for registry with The Continental Kennel Club (CKC) have almost certainly be rejected or somehow ineligible for AKC.  Since the AKC does not even require health clearances or titled dogs for breeding, it has to be something EVEN WORSE than that!

• UKC = United Kennel Club. • KCGB – Kennel Club of Great Britain.

• CKC – Canadian Kennel Club.  Although the same initials as the Continental Kennel Club, this is a separate entity and not at all affiliated with the USA CKC.

• ANKC – Australian National Kennel Club.

• NKC – National Kennel Club.

• NZKC – New Zealand Kennel Club.• ENCI – Ente Nazionale Cinofilia Italiana.  Italian Kennel Club.• KSS – Serbian Kennel Club.



• BH – Begleithund (traffic dog).  The BH is a mental/socialization test usually done in Europe and a required prerequisite for Schutzhund (working) titles.  The BH includes on and off leash obedience as well as a temperament test.

• B – Equivalent to a BH, but given in the USA.

• CD – Companion Dog.  The CD is an obedience title offered by the AKC.  The dog is required to pass this test three times (called legs) before it can be awarded the title.  This is a primary obedience degree and is earned from the Novice class.

• CDX – Companion Dog Excellent.  Similar to the CD but considered an advanced title.  It is an AKC title and is received by achieving a qualifying score three separate times in the Open class.

• UD – Utility Dog.  This is a title awarded by the AKC after a dog receives three qualifying scores in the Utility class.

• UDX – Utility Dog Excellence.  Again, similar to the UD, but an advanced title offer by the AKC.

• AD – Ausdaur Prufung.  The AD is an endurance test.  In order for a dog to earn this title they must run 20K (about 12.5 miles) in two hours without excessive fatigue.  This title is earned in Germany or in German style shows.

• FH – Fahrtenhund.  The FH is an advanced tracking degree, which includes two levels with increased difficulty (FH and FH II) this is given in Germany or German style shows.

• TD – Tracking Dog. Tracking title offered by the AKC. A test designed to assess a dog’s scenting and tracking ability.

• TDX – Tracking Dog Excellent. An advanced degree of tracking offered by the AKC.

• TT – Temperament Test.  The TT is awarded by ATTS (American Temperament Test Society)

• RTD – Registered Therapy Dog.  Although not required for a dog to become a therapy dog, it is an AKC recognized title.

• CGC – Canine Good Citizen. An AKC temperament test designed to demonstrate the dog’s ability to behave properly in social situations.  The CGC will test on and of leach obedience, ability of the dog to be nonreactive to crown convergence and ability for the dog to be handled by and left with a stranger.

• OB Ch – Obedience Champion.

• SchH – Schutzhund is a working dog sport comprised of three disciplines: tracking, obedience, and protection. All three sections count equally, and all three must be passed in order to earn the degree. The dog must score a passing mark in each of the three phases and gain a total of at least 220 points out of a possible 300 to earn the title. SchH is tested in three progressively harder levels, earning the degree SchH I, SchH II, SchH III, with level three being the hardest. SchH I is Beginning Schutzhund (minimum age 14 months), SchH II is Intermediate Schutzhund (minimum age 16 months), SchH III is Advanced Schutzhund (minimum age is 18 months). After attaining the degree at any level the dog must then wait six months before being eligible for competition at the next higher level.

• IPO – International Prufungsordung.  The IPO is an International working test similar to Schutzhund and also has 3 levels: IPO I is Beginning, IPO II is intermediate, IPO III is advanced.

• VPG – The VPG is equivalent to the SchH and IPO and also has yhree levels of working degrees.

• DM – Deutsche Meisterschaft.  The DM is a working dog championship held annually by the ADRK.

• LS – Leistungssieger.  The LS is the title awarded to the winner of the Deutsche Meisterschaft.

• SH – Such Hund.  Translates to tracking dog.

• PH – Polizei Hund.  Translates to police dog.

• DH – Dienst Hund.  Service dog.

• RH – Rettungshund.  Rescue dog.

• HGH – Herdengebaruchshund.  Herding dog.

• BIH – Blinden Hund.  Blind guide dog.

• KrH – Krwigshund.  War dog.

• LawH – Lawinen Hund.  Avalanche dog.

• MH – Meldehund.  Military dog.

• WH – Wach Hund.  Watch dog.

• HIT – Herding Instinct Tested.  This is an AKC title for herding.

• HIC – Herding Instinct Certified.  This is an AKC title for herding.

• OTCH – Obedience Trial Champion.  AKC obedience title.


Breed Suitability Testing.
Breed Suitability Test are designed to showcase the best of the best and designed to select the Rottweiler that are worthy of being bred.  For most Breed Suitability Tests, the dog’s conformation (physical beauty and structure) character and health are all taken into consideration.

• ZtP – Zuchttauglichkeitsprufung.  The ZtP is an evaluation of a dogs temperament/character, conformation and working ability.  The dog’s conformation (physical beauty and structure) must be judged of breeding quality and free of disqualifying faults.  The dog must have a valid hip certification number and must have a tattoo for identification (this ensures that the dog evaluated is indeed the dog that will be give credit for passing).  Once the conformation and soundness qualifications have been met, the dog’s temperament is tested.  This test includes a gun sureness test, a protection test, and a test to ensure that the dog is stable around the public. The results of this test are published in the “Kor” book and become a permanent record.  The report will also be printed on the pedigree of the dog’s offspring. Awarded in Germany and by the ARV.

• BST – Breed Suitability Test. Offered by the USRC and designed to emulate the ZtP.

• Gekort – An advanced breed test also known as Korung given in Germany and by the ARV. In addition to the requirements of the ZtP, they require a SchH III, IPO III, or VPG III for a male and a SchH I, IPO I, or VPG I for a female.  The minimum age for males is 36 months and for females it is 30 months.  In addition, they require three show critiques with a SG rating or better, HD/ED certificates and AD title. After this title is achieved, the dog must wait two years before it can attempt a lifetime breeding test. This title deems a dog suitable for breeding by the ADRK for a period of two years at which time they are subject to re-evaluation.

• ABST – Advanced Breed Suitability Test. Offered by the USRC and designed to emulate the Gekort.

• Gekort bis EzA – Lifetime breed suitability test. A dog with this title is rated by the ADRK as suitable for breeding for the duration of Breeding Utilization Age (nine years in males and eight years in females).

• LBST – Lifetime breed suitability test. Offered by the USRC designed to emulate the Gekort bis EzA.


Some people mistaking believe that conformation is about beauty only.  Yes, when I Rottweiler is conformationally correct, he is indeed a sight to behold, but function follows form.  Without the correct structure, the Rottweiler is unable to do the tasks asked of him.  If movement is not correct, it is often an indicator that there is something structurally incorrect.  Then the dog is unable to herd, run, track, rescue, etc. as efficiently.  If the head piece is not correct, the Rottweiler unable to maintain one of the strongest bite force of any domesticated breed of dog.  If the bone is not heavy or the dog of correct substance, then he loses his powerful frame vital to most of the jobs assigned.  Although conformation is often called the beauty portion of a dog, it is just as essential as correct character and often effects the health of the dog.

• VA rating – Excellent Select Title, that is only awarded at the Annual Sieger Show. (Auslese Klasse) select class.

• V rating – (Vorzuglich) This rating is given in German style shows and is the highest rating available for adults.  The judge will give a detailed report of the dog’s conformation and rate the dog as to how closely it matches the breed standard. The V rating stands for “excellent” representative of the standard.  Often you may see numbers following a V or SG rating (i.e. V1, SG3, etc.)  These numbers indicate what PLACE the dog came in at a particular dog show and is INDEPENDENT of the rating.  I.e. there may be MANY dogs who are worthy of a V rating at a show, but only the first 4 will place.  So a dog that receives a V2 was rated excellent by the judge and came in second place at that show.

• SG rating – (Sehr Gut) This rating stands for “very good”  and means the dog is a very good representative of the standard.  This is the highest rating generally offered to youth dogs under the age of two.

• G rating – (Gut) This rating stands for “good” and indicates that the dog is a good representative of the standard.

• NG rating – This rating stands for “not satisfactory” and usually indicates a dog with a major fault.


• VVN – (Vielversprechend) This rating stands for “very promising” and is the highest rating available in a puppy class.


• VP- Also means “very promising” and is equivalent to the VVN rating and also the highest rating a puppy can receive.

• VN – (Versprechend) This rating stands for “promising” and is the second highest rating in puppy class.

• P- Also means “promising” and is the equivalent of VN.

• A rating – (Ausreichend) means sufficient.

• M rating – (Mangelhaf) means faulty.

• O rating – (zero) failed

• U rating – unsatisfactory

• GN rating – (Genugend) satisfactory rating



• Sieger – This title is given in the German style shows and is equivalent to the male “best in show” title in the AKC.  In order to be awarded this title the dog is required to have a SchH or IPO title and a ZtP, BST or Gekort.

• Siegerin – This is the female “best in show” for the German style show and carries the same requirements as the Sieger.

• Jugend Sieger – This is the youth male “best in show” for dogs under the age of two. There are no working title requirements.

• Jugend Siegerin – This is the youth female “best in show” for dogs under the age of two. There are no working title requirements.

• KS and KSg – ADRK Klub Sieger/Siegerin for the ADRK Klub Sieger held annually in Germany.  ONLY A GERMAN BRED AND BORN DOG can earn this title.  This title will have a number after it to indicate the year the title was given.

• KJS and KJSg – ADRK Klub Youth Sieger/Siegerin (Jugend Sieger or Jugend Siegerin).  This is the title given to the best male and female YOUTH at the annual ADRK KS held annually in Germany.  Again, there will be a number after the title to indicate the year the title was given.

• NS and NSg – National Club Sieger/Siegerin

• WS and WSg – World Sieger/Siegerin.  This title will also have a number after it to indicate the year the title was achieved.

• WJS and WJSg – World Youth Sieger/Siegerin.  This is another title that will have a number after it to indicate the year the title was achieved.
• BS and BSg – Bundessieger/Bundessiegerin (Germany) Again, the number indicates the year the title was achieved.
• BJS and BJSg – Bundes Youth Sieger/Siegerin (Germany) The number indicates the year the title was achieved.
• ES and ESg – Europasieger/ Europasiegerin (Europe) The number indicates the year the title was achieved.
• EJS and EJSg – Europa Youth Sieger/Siegerin (Europe) The number indicates the year the title was achieved.
• VDH CH – German Champion
• OBS and OBSg – Austrian Sieger
• CH – In an American pedigree this can be taken to mean American champion. The American part is just understood.  To obtain the American champion title, the AKC requires the dog to accrue 15 points. Two of their show wins must come from what is called a “major show”. The number of entries in a show determines if it is a major. A major is a 3, 4, or 5 point show.
• (Country) CH – Dogs can obtain championships in many different countries. (Examples: Serbian CH, Italian CH., Canadian CH., etc.)
• C.A.C. – This is a certificate awarded to a dog to become a National Champion in a FCI recognized country. (This title cannot be earned in the USA because the AKC does not comply with and is not recognized by the FCI)• R.C.A.C.- Reserve C.A.C. or runner up.
• C.A.C.I.B. – (Cerficate d’ Aptitude au Champion at International de Beaute)  This is a certificate awarded to a dog to necessary become an FCI International Champion.  When a judge issues a CACIB card to a dog he expresses the opinion that this particular animal seems worthy to him to obtain the International Championship title.  The CACIB is awarded only to selected dogs and at the judges discretion.  Further, a C.A.C.I.B. can only be awarded at an International Show which has been approved by the FCI.


• R.C.A.C.I.B.- Reserve C.A.C.I.B. or runner up to the dog who received the C.A.C.I.B.
• FCI Int’l CH. – FCI International Champion.  To become one, a dog must win two CACIB shows in two different FCI recognized countries under two different judges.  These shows must be won at least one year and one day apart.  One of the CACIB cards must have been won either in the country of the owner or in the country where the breed originated. (Germany for Rottweilers) Must have a SchH, IPO, or VPG (working) title.
• BISA – Title awarded the Best in Show at an AKC – licensed all-breed show.
• BISS – Title awarded the Best in Show at an AKC – licensed Specialty Show. (Rottweilers only)
• BIS – Best in Show. Best dog/bitch at an all-breed show. (AKC)
• BOS – Best Opposite Sex
• BOB – Best of Breed.  Best Rottweiler at an all-breed show. (AKC)
• BOW – Best of Winners. Between WD (winner dog) and WB (winner bitch) AKC
• WD – Winner Dog that wins the championship points at an AKC show.
• WB – Winner Bitch that wins the championship points at an AKC show.
• SA – Select Adult; Winner at a USRC Club Show
• SY – Select Youth; Youth winner at a USRC Club Show
• RS – Regional Sieger or Siegerin; USRC Regional Sieger Show winner
• RYS – Regional Youth Sieger or Siegerin; USRC Regional Sieger Show winner 12 – 18 months of age
• NS – National Sieger or Siegerin; USRC National Sieger Show winner
• NYS – National Youth Sieger or Siegerin; USRC National Sieger Show winner 12-18 months of age
German Classes
• Jungsten Klasse – Youth dogs in 9 to 12 months class in age.  They are separated into male and female classes and no totles are necessary to enter this class. 

• Junghend Klasse – Youth dogs in 12 to 18 months in age.  They are separated into male and female classes and no titles are necessary to enter this class.

• Junghund Klasse – Youth dogs in 18-24 months in age.  They are separated into male and female classes and no titles are necessary to enter this class.
• Alters Klasse – Adult dogs over 24 months in age.  They are separated into male and female classes and no titles are necessary to enter this class.
• Offence Klasse – Adult dogs over 24 months in age and not possessing any working titles. Separated according to sex.
• Sieger Klasse – Open only to Siegers/Siegerins. Separated according to sex.
• Zuchtgruppen Klasse – Kennel Group.  This is for progeny produced by a kennel.  The dogs are judged on correctness as well as type. 
• Gebrauchshund Klasse – Adult dogs over 24 months with a working title.  The Sieger and Siegerin will come from this class. 

AKC Classes
• Puppy class – Pups under 12 months of age on the day of show that are not champions.• 12 to 18 Month class – Dogs at least 12 months old but under 18 months on the day of the show that are not champions.


• Novice class – Dogs born in the United States, Canada, Mexico or Bermuda that have not earned three first-place ribbons in the Novice class or one first-place ribbon in the Bred –by-Exhibitor, American-Bred or Open class. Dogs in this class may not have won any points toward their championships.

• Bred-by-Exhibitor class – Dogs being shown by any one of the breeders of record who is also an owner or co-owner.  The dog may also be shown by a member of the immediate family of any one of the breeders of record.  No champions of record are eligible for this class.

• American-Bred class – For any dog whelped in the United States as the result of a mating that took place in the United States that is not yet a champion.

• Open class – Any dog six months or older.• Best of Breed – This class is for champions only.

ARV/USRC Sieger Style Show Classes
(All classes are divided males in one class and females in another)
Puppy & Youth Classes
• 4-6 month Male/Female – For all Rottweilers between the ages of 4 and 6 months.

• 6-9 month Male/Female – For all Rottweilers between the ages of 6 and 9 months.

• 9-12 month Male/Female – for all Rottweilers between the ages of 9 and 12 months.

• 12-18 month Male/Female – For all Rottweilers between the ages of 12-18 months.

• 18-24 month Male/Female – For all Rottweilers between the ages of 18-24 months.

Adult Classes
• Open Male/Female – For all Rottweilers 24 months and older that do not possess an ARV recognized Schutzhund or IPO title, Championship or Sieger/Siegerin Title.

• Champion Male/Female –  For all Rottweilers 24 months and older who have earned a ARV, VDH, FCI, AKA, CKC, Championship or from any country where the Championship was awarded by an FCI recognized kennel club.

• Sieger/Siegerin –  For all Rottweilers 24 months and older that have earned a Sieger or Siegerin title at an ARV National or Regional Show.

• Gebrauschund Male/Female – For all  Rottweilers with a Schutzhund title that have not earned a Sieger/Siegerin title.

• Veteran Male/Female – For all Rottweilers 7 years or older the day of the

Non-Regular Classes
• Kennel Group: Entered by the kennel owner.  A minimum of three dogs bred by the kennel owner representing their breeding program and registered with the kennel name of the entrant.  Progeny must be from at least two different litters.  (not a repeat breeding) and must be entered in regular classes.  The kennel owner need not be the registered owner of the dogs.

• Stud Dog/Brood Bitch: Entered by the owner of the stud dog/brood bitch.  The stud dog/brood bitch and at least 3 of his/her progeny from two different litters (not a repeat breeding) must appear in the ring.  The stud dog/brood bitch must have been minimum 24 months of age at the time of breeding and
have an ARV approved hip certification.  Class will be evaluated on the merits of the offspring.  The owner of the stud dog/brood bitch need not be owner of the offspring.  The offspring must first be entered in the show’s regular classes.

• EZ – (Einfachzucht) One parent has a schutzhund title (white papered)
• GZ – (Gebrauchshundzucht) Both parents have schutzhund titles (white papered)
• LZ – (Leistungszucht) Both parents and all 4 grandparents have schutzhund titles (pink papered) This is by far the most common level of breeding in Germany due to the high emphasis placed on work.
• KZ – (Koerzucht) Both parents have schutzhund titles and korungs: but at least one of the grandparents does not have schutzhund title (pink papered)
• KLZ – (Koer-und Leistungszucht) Both parents have schutzhund titles and korungs; all 4 grandparents have schutzhund titles (red papered) EYE COLOR
I have seen it advertised time and time again “rare Rottweiler pups for sale with light brown or yellow eyes”.  It is right up there with “rare all black Rottweiler” (um… that is called a black lab!) or “rare red Rottweiler” (not rare- MIXED!!)  These unscrupulous breeders should call them what they are “not-so-rare-all-too-common-poorly-bred-who’s-your baby’s-daddy pups!”The breed standard exists for a reason- every thing in the breed standard has not only been tried and proven for well over a century, but also effects the dog AND his ability to perform the tasks asked of him and eye color is no exception.  Not only do the dark eyes add to the strong, slightly intimidating head type rather than distract from it (the yellow stick out like a sore thumb!), but they also effect the dog’s ability in working, herding, etc.  Dark eyes are the breed standard!  If you breed a pup with light eyes, just like all other faults, YOU WILL PRODUCE THAT FAULT IN YOUR OFFSPRING!
• 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A – Eye ratings that are eligible for the Korung and BST. 1A is the darkest possible shade of brown appearing almost black.  This color is HIGHLY SOUGHT after!  Eye color is easily lost with improper breeding and difficult to win back in your bloodlines.
• 3B, 4A – Eye ratings that are eligible for the BST but ineligible for the Korung.  Anything below 4b is considered not breedable!
Hip Dysplasia– The most common cause of rear end lameness in large breed dogs.  Hip dysplasia is condition unfortunately all to common in all large breed and many medium breed dogs.  Although it is not always inheritable and can often be induced by environment or diet, proper screening of the parents is still paramount!  Even with the absolute best bloodlines, the very nature of large breed dogs, the rapid growth, etc. will always make them prone to this condition, HOWEVER, by breeding the best and strongest dogs, you can SIGNIFICANTLY reduce the genetic component to hip dysplasia.  Proper education of owners on environmental contributors is also crucial!  PLEASE DO NOT BUY A PUP FROM A BREEDER THAT REFUSES TO EVEN PUT FORTH EFFORT in attempting to alleviate the genetic component to hip dysplasia.  There is really NO EXCUSE to not x-ray your dogs or bitches or to breed affected dogs!! 


Hip Ratings
Because hip ratings vary from country to country, I thought it might be beneficial to state what each of the certifications mean:
* All these represent Excellent hips and are considered optimum for breeding:
HD-0, HD/0
OFA “E“ 

* All of these rating represent Good hips and are also considered breedable:
HD/1, HD-1
OFA “G”* Represents Fair hips also considered breedable (although careful consideration should be given to both the pedigree of the dog receiving a fair rating- i.e. ratings of parents, siblings, etc. as well as careful consideration to the dog/bitch that you would consider breeding a ‘fair’ dog to:
HD/2, HD-2



* Indicate Mild dysplasia- anything in this category or below is considered unbreedable
HD/3, HD-3-* Severe dysplasia- not only is this considered unbreedable, but in most cases, severe hip dysplasia will result in lameness of the dog without corrective surgery.
HD/4, HD-4

Elbow Ratings:
* No dysplasia (‘excellent’):
ED-0, ED/0
OFA normal


* Almost no dysplasia (‘good’)
ED-1, ED/1

* Mild dysplasia (‘fair’)
ED-2, ED/2* Moderate dysplasia
ED-3, ED/3* Severe dysplasia
ED-4, ED/4
• OFA – Orthopedic Foundation for Animals. The organization that evaluates and certifies hips and elbows in the USA.  Hips can only be certified by OFA after the age of 24 months. The ratings for the hips are “excellent”, “good”, “fair” or not passing.• PennHIP- This is a relatively newer procedure for evaluating a dog or hip dysplasia but it is getting rave reviews.  Dogs can be evaluated as early as 6 months of age and because of the method used, the test is much less subjective than the OFA.
• GDC – Another organization that evaluates and certifies hips.
• CERF – Canine Eye Registration Foundation.  This organization evaluates and certifies dogs to be free of congenital eye disease, such as Progressive retinal atrophy.  They also research and collect data to better understand the diseases.
• VWD – von Willebrand’s Disease.  A blood clotting disorder occasionally seen in Rottweilers.  A blood test can reveal the presence of the disorder even in a dog with no symptoms.
• Thyroid – Rottweilers may be tested to reveal a properly functioning Thyroid.  Hypothyroidism can lead to poor coat condition, lethargy, obesity and fertility problems.  For treatment, the dog is given hormone replacement.
• Heart – Rottweilers can suffer from congenital heart disease. The most common cause is developmental defects.  This includes aortic stenosis and pulmonary stenosis.  If the defect is severe, most dogs will die under one year of age.  Heart defects can be hereditary.  Because heart problems are second only to joint (hip and elbow) issues in Rottweilers, ALL BREEDING STOCK SHOULD BE CERTIFIED.

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